James Madison Bell was born 1846, in Gallipolis, Ohio and was a brick mason. For 40 years he wrote, published and gave public readings of his orations in verse. Bell recited his poetry to the refugees as well as Chester A. Arthur, the 21st President of the United States of America. After moving to Canada, Bell married Louisiana Sanderline. He also became acquainted with John Brown, assisting in raising funds for Brown's efforts to assist the Negro slaves. Some of Bells support helped in funding Brown’s in the raid at Harper's Ferry in 1859. As a writer, Bells early poems frequently addressed the issue of emancipation, and this was a constant theme in his poetry. He moved to California in 1860 remaining till the end of the Civil War. Throughout the war, he spoke out against slavery and for the emancipation of slaves in the US and the West Indies. Bell’s Publications include: "The Day and the War," Emancipation Day poem, dedicated to John Brown and "Valedictory of Leaving San Francisco California." He wrote his most famous poem, The Progress of Liberty, in celebration of the Emancipation Proclamation. A biography of Bell can be found in Firffith Brawley's Work "The Negro Genius." (1931). Bell was also active in the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church and became superintendent of the AME Sunday School from 1870-1873. His wife and oldest son are thought to have died in 1874. Bell continued to travel around as an orator until 1890 when he settled down with his family in Toledo, Ohio. In 1901 Bell published 27 of his poems, which he called "The Poetical Works of James Madison Bell" 1901. James Madison Bell died in Toledo Ohio in 1902. Reference: Black Past 4816 25th Avenue N.E., PMB 222 Seattle, Washington 98105